کورش بزرگ Who is Cyrus the Great

Who is Cyrus the Great

By Pouya Monsefi


کورش بزرگ کیست ؟

byname Cyrus The Great ( kourosh ) conqueror who founded the Achaemenian empire, centred on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. He is also remembered in the Cyrus legend—first recorded by Xenophon, Greek soldier and author, in his Cyropaedia—as a tolerant and ideal monarch who was called the father of his people by the ancient Persians. In the Bible he is the liberator of the Jews who were captive in Babylonia

In 550BC, Cyrus the great appeared in Persia and united the two kingdoms and soon subverted Babylonia and Lydia. The two nations, united by Cyrus, made up a powerful empire of "the Persians and the Medes" and established the first persian empire which, under the leadership of Cyrus grew increasingly stronger until Cyrus was killed in his last battle against nomads on the east and was buried at
PASAR GOD. The dynasty that followed Cyrus drew its name from one of his ancestors, Achaemenes, whom Cyrus greatly respected. Cyrus's short life was filled with courage, compassion towards the conquered, and tolerance of others ideals and religions

. When he conquered Babylonia he retained the king as a satrap
 (or provincial governor). He also freed the Jewish slaves there, and helped them return to their homeland and rebuild their temples which the Babylonians had destroyed. Thus it is that in the Old Testament Cyrus's name has been mentioned with respect and gratitude. Although Cyrus's son, Cambyses, managed to conquer Egypt easily, before going to Egypt he killed his brother Bardia who was more popular. When he left Iran a man who resembled Bardia took the throne and Cambyses died or killed himself on his way back. In 521 BC a few of the noblest princes assassinated the imposter and elected Darius I as the new King of Kings, or the Great King as Persian kings were known to the Greeks

The Achaemenes persian Empire Map
 Berlin museum

رنگ سبز ،نقشه ایران از آغاز امپراطوری هخامنشی تا زمان ساسانیان است
این نقشه از سمت راست کشورهای هند ، چین ، پاکستان ، افغانستان ، تاجیکستان ، ازبکستان ، قرقیزستان ،سمرقند ، بخارا  تا مرزهای اروپای شرقی و از سمت چپ ،عراق ، مصر تا بخشی از افریقا و در پایین ، کل کشورهای تازه حوزه خلیج فارس همانند امارات ، عمان ، قطر و بحرین  و از بالا ، بخشی بزرگی از روسیه ،کل ارمنستان و آدربایجان ،گرجستان و ترکیه تا نزدیک یونان را در بر می گیرد
این نقشه در موزه برلین نگه داری می شود

Declaration Of Nations right
The Cyrus Cylinder

The charter of Cyrus the Great, a baked-clay cylinder, was discovered in 1878 in excavation of the site of Babylon by Assyrian archaeologist, Hormuz Rassam. Inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform containing a detailed account by Cyrus the Great, which described his conquest of Babylon in 539 BCE, and his human treatment of his conquered subjects. Length of this cylinder is 22.86 Centimetre, and it is now kept in the British Museum; it is no exaggeration to say that it is one of the most precious historical records of the world. Cyrus’ cylinder, resonate for Iranians at a very profound level, which has become part of Iran’s cultural and national identity
Cylinder inscription describes the Great King not as a conqueror, but as a liberator and the legitimate successor to the crown of Mesopotamia. Cyrus the Great took the title of “King of Babylon and King of the Land”. Cyrus had no thought of forcing his new subjects into single mould of Persianhood, and had the wisdom to leave unchanged the institution of each kingdom he attached to the Imperial Crown

The document has been hailed as world’s first universal declaration of human rights, and in 1971 the United Nations was published translation of it in all the official U.N. languages.

In the Charter, after introducing himself and mentioning the names of his father, first, second, and third ancestors, Cyrus says that he is the monarch of Iran, Babylon, and the four continents:

....Cyrus the Great
After entering Babylon and after the winter of 539 BCE, on the first day of spring, he was officially crowned. The description of the coronation of Cyrus is the most elaborate one in the world written by the Greek philosopher, politician, and historian Xenephon. On the day of coronation, Cyrus read the Charter of Freedom out after he put on the crown with his hand in Marduk Temple.
Uncertain and the full text of the Charter were unavailable until an inscription was foundering the excavation works in the old city of Ur in Mesopotamia. After the translation of the words, it was found out that the document was the same Charter.
(line 24) My numerous troops moved about undisturbed in the midst of Babylon. I did not allow anyone to terrorise the land of Sumer and Akkad.
(25) I kept in view the needs of Babylon and all its sanctuaries to promote their well being. The citizens of Babylon …………….. I lifted their unbecoming yoke.
(26) Their dilapidated dwellings I restored. I put an end to their misfortunes.
The document is also confirms many of the details recorded in Ezra 1:2-4, in which Cyrus the Great decreed that the Israelites could return to Judea from captivity to rebuild the temple in In 537 BCE.

Cyrus Cylinder chosen as the symbol of 2,500-years anniversary of the Imperial Regime in Iran

Before the discovery of this artifact, many sceptic Western historians believed that the idea of a Zoroastrian emperor like Cyrus the Great, simply allowing a conquered people like the Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild their temple, (as described in detail in Ezra 1:2-4), simply was not credible and was propagated by Persians. Nevertheless, the Cyrus Cylinder as well as Biblical statements depict the exact scenario, verifying in detail corresponds with each other.The biblical texts were made by both Isaiah and Jeremiah
regarding this equally great king.

This incredible find shows that the Emperor Cyrus did indeed allowed many of the nations he conquered not only to practice their various beliefs, (a practice unheard of at that time), but financially and politically supported the return of several ethnic groups (including the Jews) who were captive in Babylon to return to their original homelands, rebuilt their temples and restored their articles of worship, from the imperial treasury and at his own expense. (in accordance to what is said in saiah 45:13).The Biblical statements are also
confirm almost all of the significant of the Cyrus Cylinder and Cyrus a benevolent character

Tomb of Cyrus in Pasargad   Shiraz - Iran                     

آرامگاه کورش بزرگ در پاسارگاد شیراز                                             

I am Kourosh (Cyrus), King of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the land Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters, son of Camboujiyah (Cambyases), great king, king of Anshân, grandson of Kourosh (Cyrus), great king, king of Anshân, descendant of Chaish-Pesh (Teispes), great king, king of Anshân, progeny of an unending royal line, whose rule Bel and Nabu cherish, whose kingship they desire for their hearts, pleasure. When I well -disposed, entered Babylon, I set up a seat of domination in the royal palace amidst jubilation and rejoicing. Marduk the great god, caused the big-hearted inhabitations of Babylon to ……………… me, I
sought daily tohim

He continues

Now that I put the crown of kingdom of Iran, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions on the head with the help of Ahura Mazda,(God) I announce that I will respect the traditions, customs and religions of the nations of my empire and never let any of my governors and subordinates look down on or insult them until I am alive. From now on, till (Ahura) Mazda grants me the kingdom favor, I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it , and if any one of them rejects it , I never resolve on war to reign. Until I am the king of Iran, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions, I never let anyone oppress any others, and if it occurs , I will take his or her right back and penalize the oppressor

Note : Ahura Mazda, is God

And until I am the monarch, I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation ! . Until I am alive, I prevent unpaid, forced labor. To day, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other’s rights .

No one could be penalized for his or her relatives’ faults. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. Such a traditions should be exterminated the world over.

I implore to (Ahura) Mazda to make me succeed in fulfilling my obligations to the nations of Iran (Persia), Babylon, and the ones of the four directions.’
This is a confirmation that the Charter of freedom of Humankind issued by Cyrus the Great on his coronation day in Babylon could be considered superior to the Human Rights Manifesto issued by the French revolutionaries in their first national assembly. The Human Rights Manifesto looks very interesting in its kind regarding the expressions and composition, but the Charter of Freedom issued twenty-three centuries before
that by the Iranian monarch sounds more spiritual

متن کامل فرمان کوروش بزرگ
به زبان پارسی
اينك كه به ياري و خواست "اهورا مزدا" (= خداوند جان و خرد) تاج شاهنشاهی "ايران"، "بابِل" و كشورهاي چهارگانه را بر سر گذاشته ام، اعلام مي كنم تا روزي كه زنده هستم و "مزدا" پادشاهي را به من ارمغان مي كند، كيش و آيين و باورهاي مردماني را كه من پادشاه آنها هستم گرامي بدارم و نگذارم تا فرمانروايان و زير دستان من كيش و آيين و دين و روش مردمان ديگر را پست بدارند و يا آنها را بيازارند.
من كه امروز افسر پادشاهي را بر سر نهاده ام، تا روزي كه زنده هستم و "مزدا" پادشاهي را به من ارزاني كرده، هرگز فرمانروايي خود را بر هيچ مردماني به زور روا نداشته، تحميل نکنم؛ و در پادشاهي من هر سرزمين و ملتي آزاد است كه مرا به شاهي خود بپذيرد يا نپذيرد. و هرگاه نخواهند مرا پادشاه خود بدانند، من برای پادشاهی بر آن مردم، با آنها به نبرد نخواهم پرداخت؛ و تا روزی که من پادشاه "ايران" و "بابِل" و سرزمين های چهارگانه هستم، نخواهم گذاشت كه كسي به ديگري ستم كند و اگر كسي ناتوان بود و بر او ستمي رفت، من به ياری او خواهم شتافت و داد او را گرفته، به او پس خواهم داد و ستمكاران را به سزای کار نادرستشان خواهم رساند.

من تا روزي كه پادشاه هستم نخواهم گذاشت كسي مال و دارایی ديگري را با زور و يا هر روشِ نادرستِ ديگري از او بدون پرداخت ارزش راستين و واقعي آن بگيرد.
من تا روزي كه زنده هستم نخواهم گذاشت كسي، كسي را به بيگاري بگيرد و به او مزد نپردازد.
من اعلام مي كنم (و فرمان می دارم) كه هر كس آزاد است هر دين و آييني را كه دوست دارد برگزيند؛ و در هر جا كه مي خواهد سكونت نمايد؛ و به هر گونه كه می پندارد پرستش كند و معتقدات يا ستايش پروردگار خود را به جا آورد؛ و هر پيشه ای را كه مي خواهد انتخاب نمايد؛ تنها به راهی يا شرطي كه حق كسي را پايمال نکرده، و زياني به حقوق ديگران وارد نسازد.
من اعلام مي كنم (و فرمان می دارم) هر كس پاسخگوي کردار خود مي باشد. هيچ كس را نبايد به انگيزه ی اينكه يكی از بستگانش کار نادرستی انجام داده مجازات و سرزنش کنند و اگر كسي از دودمان يا خانواده اي خلاف كرد تنها همان كس به كيفر برسد و با ديگر مردمان و خانواده ی او كاري نيست.
تا روزي كه من زنده هستم نخواهم گذاشت مردان و زنان را به نام بَرده و يا نامهاي ديگر بفروشند؛ و اين رسم زندگي (= بنده زادگی، برده داری و برده فروشی) بايد از گيتي رخت بربندد (و كاركنان دولت من نيز چنين كنند تا زمانيكه اين سنت زشت از روي زمين برچيده شود).
من به تمام سنتها، و اديان "بابِل" و "اَكَد" و ساير كشورهاي زير فرمانم احترام مي‌‌گذارم. همه ي مردم دركشورها و سرزمينهاي زير فرمان من در انتخاب دين، كار و محل زندگي آزادند.

از "اهورا مزدا" مي خواهم كه مرا در بکار بستن پيمان هايی که با ملتهاي "ايران" و کشورهای چهارگانه بسته ام پيروز گرداند

برای بزرگنمایی نوشتار زیر، بر روی ان کلیک کنید

by : pooya monsefi

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